Called Free Valve technology, this new way of actuating valves in a piston engine is quite simple conceptually, and offers a new realm of possibilities of automotive technology.
The way it works is elegant; all poppet valves sit on pneumatic springs that also are actuators, which are electronically controlled, this allows for almost infinite adjustment of valve timing, duration, and lift.

The modular architecture in the system makes for easy implementations in any possible cylinder configuration, further reducing weight, mechanical complexity, and power loss from driving mechanical components. We are fortunate to witness the new business technology of these amazing developments happen within our lifetimes.
If you can imagine an engine free of the mechanical constraints of a steel camshaft (or four), you have the basics of the manufacturing Koenigsegg Freevalve engine. As opposed to a camshaft dictating valve position, each valve has its own actuator controlling the valve position and timing.

The idea has been around for years, and many firms have worked on bringing it to market, but supercar maker Koenigsegg has spent the last 13 years working on a camless head.
Koenigsegg engine
There are more potential advantages to a cylinder head of this design than we can list. In theory, a camless engine can run on any combination of its cylinders, with conventional or the more efficient Atkinson and forced-induction Miller cycles (thanks to their relatively bigger expansion ratios), and with lots of overlap, depending on the application. Or not.

A naturally aspirated 1.5-liter four-cylinder capable of 40-plus mpg on two cylinders and well over 250 horsepower when wanted isn’t outside the realm of possibility.
Only want to pump 87 octane?

No problem, but when you decide to spring for the good, high-knock-resistance premium, your engine could instantly crank out more power, especially if there is a turbocharger in the mix.

Watch below this  cool animation video.

When camless heads catch on—there’s no if—the EPA’s gas-guzzler tax could cease to exist; at minimum, there would need to be a comprehensive rewrite of those laws, because every engine could nurse its way through EPA testing. The potential is nearly limitless at both ends of the spectrum: efficiency and power. Enough to make small cars fly.
There are a few small downsides, however. There is a draw from the engine to run the pneumatic (an air compressor/accumulator of some kind is needed) and oil actuators (another oil pump), but those losses aren’t nearly as large as the parasitic losses from the friction associated with driving cams, chains, and spring-loaded valves. Plus, those actuators are rather noisy and in their current state would never pass the public muster.

Source: @Gearheads; @Blog Car and Driver;

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